Biochemists in our group study enzymology, enzyme inhibition, protein chemistry, interactions between proteins and other proteins, RNA or DNA. We particularly use fluorescence and luminescence techniques, fluorescence polarization, isothermal calorimetry, thermal denaturation, NMR and CD and MD techniques, sedimentation equilibrium methods, TEM, confocal microscopy and live cell imaging. Biologists in our group interrogate human protein and cell function, and elucidate mechanisms of protein activation, biological/physiological processes, disease development, and drug action. Some researchers study rat or mouse models of human diseases. Researchers gain insights to human physiology or aberrant processes in disease, and develop interdisciplinary skills in enzymology, biochemistry, pharmacology, immunology, endocrinology, virology, parasitology, oncology and neurobiology.


Publications (Biochemistry)


HDAC7 is an immunometabolic switch triaging danger signals for engagement of antimicrobial versus inflammatory responses in macrophages. Das Gupta K, Ramnath D, von Pein JB, Curson JEB, Wang Y, Abrol R, Kakkanat A, Moradi SV, Gunther KS, Murthy AMV, Stocks CJ, Kapetanovic R, Reid RC, Iyer A, Ilka ZC, Nauseef WM, Plan M, Luo L, Stow JL, Schroder K, Karunakaran D, Alexandrov K, Shakespear MR, Schembri MA, Fairlie DP, Sweet MJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2023, 120, e2212813120. 

Histone deacetylase 7: a signalling hub controlling development, inflammation, metabolism and disease. Wang Y, Abrol R, Mak JYW, Das Gupta K, Ramnath D, Karunakaran D, Fairlie DP, Sweet MJ. FEBS J 2023, 290 2805-2832.

Venom composition and bioactive RF-amide peptide toxins of the saddleback caterpillar, Acharia stimulea (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). Goudarzi MH, Eagles DA, Lim J, Biggs KA, Kotze AC, Ruffell AP, Fairlie DP, King GF, Walker AA. Biochem Pharmacol 2023, 213, 115598. 

Wollamide cyclic hexapeptides synergize with established and new tuberculosis antibiotics in targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rollo RF, Mori G, Hill TA, Hillemann D, Niemann S, Homolka S, Fairlie DP, Blumenthal A. Microbiol Spectr 2023, 11, e0046523.



Quantitative affinity measurement of small molecule ligand binding to major histocompatibility complex class-I-related protein 1 MR1. Wang CJH, Awad W, Liu L, Mak JYW, Veerapen N, Illing PT, Purcell AW, Eckle SBG, McCluskey J, Besra GS, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J, Le Nours J. J Biol Chem 2022, 298, 102714. 

Landscaping macrocyclic peptides: stapling hDM2-binding peptides for helicity, protein affinity, proteolytic stability and cell uptake. de Araujo AD, Lim J, Wu KC, Hoang HN, Nguyen HT, Fairlie DP. RSC Chem Biol 20223, 895-904. 

Tuning Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Surfaces of Aromatic Rings to Enhance Membrane Association and Cell Uptake of Peptides. de Araujo AD, Hoang HN, Lim J, Mak JYW, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 202261, e202203995.

Modifying a Hydroxyl Patch in Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Produces Biased Agonists with Unique Signaling Profiles. Wang P, Hill TA, Mitchell J, Fitzsimmons RL, Xu W, Loh Z, Suen JY, Lim J, Iyer A, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 202265, 11759-11775.

A specialized tyrosine-based endocytosis signal in MR1 controls antigen presentation to MAIT cells. Lim HJ, Wubben JM, Garcia CP, Cruz-Gomez S, Deng J, Mak JYW, Hachani A, Anderson RJ, Painter GF, Goyette J, Amarasinghe SL, Ritchie ME, Roquilly A, Fairlie DP, Gaus K, Rossjohn J, Villadangos JA, McWilliam HEG. J Cell Biol 2022, 221, e202110125.

Temporal perturbation of histone deacetylase activity reveals a requirement for HDAC1-3 in mesendoderm cell differentiation. Sinniah E, Wu Z, Shen S, Naval-Sanchez M, Chen X, Lim J, Helfer A, Iyer A, Tng J, Lucke AJ, Reid RC, Redd MA, Nefzger CM, Fairlie DP, Palpant NJ. Cell Rep 2022, 39, 110818.

The balance of interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 determines the bias of MAIT1 versus MAIT17 responses during bacterial infection. Wang H, Nelson AG, Wang B, Zhao Z, Lim XY, Shi M, Meehan LJ, Jia X, Kedzierska K, Meehan BS, Eckle SB, Souter MN, Pediongco TJ, Mak JY, Fairlie DP, McCluskey J, Wang Z, Corbett AJ, Chen Z. Immunol Cell Biol 2022, 100, 547-561.

Inhibition of the master regulator of Listeria monocytogenes virulence enables bacterial clearance from spacious replication vacuoles in infected macrophages. Tran TT, Mathmann CD, Gatica-Andrades M, Rollo RF, Oelker M, Ljungberg JK, Nguyen TTK, Zamoshnikova A, Kummari LK, Wyer OJK, Irvine KM, Melo-Bolívar J, Gross A, Brown D, Mak JYW, Fairlie DP, Hansford KA, Cooper MA, Giri R, Schreiber V, Joseph SR, Simpson F, Barnett TC, Johansson J, Dankers W, Harris J, Wells TJ, Kapetanovic R, Sweet MJ, Latomanski EA, Newton HJ, Guérillot RJR, Hachani A, Stinear TP, Ong SY, Chandran Y, Hartland EL, Kobe B, Stow JL, Sauer-Eriksson AE, Begun J, Kling JC, Blumenthal A. PLoS Pathog 2022, 18, e1010166.



Taking the Myc out of cancer: Toward therapeutic strategies to directly inhibit c-Myc.S Madden, AD de Araujo, M Gerhardt, DP Fairlie, JM Mason. Molecular Cancer 202120, 3.

De novo macrocyclic peptides for inhibiting, stabilizing, and probing the function of the retromer endosomal trafficking complex. Kai-En Chen, Qian Guo, Timothy A Hill, Yi Cui, Amy K Kendall, Zhe Yang, Ryan J Hall, Michael D Healy, Joanna Sacharz, Suzanne J Norwood, Sachini Fonseka, Boyang Xie, Robert C Reid, Natalya Leneva, Robert G Parton, Rajesh Ghai, David A Stroud, David P Fair Science Advances 20217(49), eabg4007.

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells effector function is an intrinsic cell property that can be augmented by the metabolic cofactor α-ketoglutarate. Howson L, Li J, von Borstel A, Barugahare A, Mak J, Fairlie D, McCluskey J, Turner SJ, Davey M, Rossjohn J. J Immunol 2021, 206, 1425-1435. 

Fortified coiled coils: enhancing mechanical stability with lactam or metal staples. López-García P, de Araujo AD, Bergues-Pupo AE, Tunn I, Fairlie DP*, Blank KG*. Angew Chem Int Edit 202160, 232-236.

HDAC7 inhibition by phenacetyl and phenylbenzoyl hydroxamates. Mak JYW, Wu KC, Gupta PK, Barbero S, McLaughlin MG, Lucke AJ, Tng J, Lim J, Loh Z, Sweet MJ, Reid RC, Liu L, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 202164, 2186-2204. 

Connecting hydrophobic surfaces in cyclic peptides increases membrane permeability. Hoang HN, Hill TA, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 202160, 8385-8390. 

Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 and achiral analogues kill malaria parasites in vitro and in mice.Chua MJ, Tng J, Hesping E, Fisher GM, Goodman CD, Skinner-Adams T, Do D, Lucke AJ, Reid RC, Fairlie DP, Andrews KT. Int J Parasiol Drugs Drug Resist 202117, 118-127.

Targeting class IIa HDACs: insights from phenotypes and inhibitors. Liu L, Dong L, Fairlie DP. Curr Med Chem 2021, 28, 8628–8672. 

Late-stage hydrocarbon conjugation and cyclization in synthetic peptides and proteins. de Araujo AD, Nguyen HT, Fairlie DP. ChemBioChem 202122, 1784-1789.

A nucleotide analog prevents colitis associated cancer via Β-catenin independently of inflammation and autophagy.Sheng YH, Giri R, Davies J, Schreiber V, Alabbas S, Movva R, He Y, Wu A, Hooper J, McWhinney B, Oancea I, Kijanka G, Hasnain S, Lucke AJ, Fairlie DP, McGuckin MA, Florin TH, Begun J. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021,11, 33-53. 

MAIT cells regulate NK cell mediated tumor immunity. Petley EV, Koay HF, Henderson MA, Sek K, Todd KL, Keam SK, Lai J, House IG, Li J, Zehoven M, Chen AXY, Oliver AJ, Michie J, Freeman AJ, Giuffrida L, Chan JD, Pizzolla A, Mak JYW, McCulloch TR, Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Kearney CJ, Millen R, Ramsay RG, Huntington ND, McCluskey J, Oliaro J, Fairlie DP, Neeson PJ, Godfrey DI, Beavis PA, Darcy PK. Nature Commun 2021, 12, 4746. 

PAR2-induced tissue factor synthesis by primary cultures of human kidney tubular epithelial cells is modified by glucose availability. Humphries TLR, Shen K, Iyer A, Johnson DW, Gobe GC, Nikolic-Paterson D, Fairlie DP, Vesey DA. Int J Mol Sci 2021, 22, 7532.

Mechanotransduction activates RhoA in the neighbors of apoptotic epithelial cells to engage apical extrusion. Duszyc K, Gomez GA, Lagendijk AK, Yau MK, Nanavati BN, Gliddon BL, Hall TE, Verma S, Hogan BM, Pitson SM, Fairlie DP, Parton RG, Yap AS. Curr Biol 2021, 31, 1326-1336.e5. 

PAR2 induces ovarian cancer cell motility by merging three signalling pathways to transactivate EGFR. Jiang Y, Lim J, Wu KC, Xu W, Suen JY, Fairlie DP. Br J Pharmacol 2021, 178, 913-932.

Chemical modulators of mucosal associated invariant T cells. Mak JYW, Liu L, Fairlie DP. Accounts of Chemical Research 202154, 3462-3475. 


The molecular basis underpinning the potency and specificity of MAIT cell antigens. Awad W, Ler G, Xu W, Keller AN, Mak JYW, Yi X, Lim J, Liu L, Eckle SBG, Le Nours J, McCluskey J, Corbett AJ, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J.  Nat Immunol 202021, 400-411.

Achiral derivatives of hydroxamate AR-42 potently inhibit class I HDAC enzymes and cancer cell proliferation. Tng J, Lim J, Wu KC, Lucke AJ, Xu W, Reid RC, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 202063, 5956-5971. 

Potent thiophene antagonists of human complement C3a receptor with anti-Inflammatory activity. Rowley JA, Reid RC, Poon EKY, Wu KC, Lim J, Lohman RJ, Hamidon JK, Yau MK, Halili MA, Durek T, Iyer A, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 202063, 529-541.

Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones stabilize ligand-receptive MR1 molecules for efficient presentation of metabolite antigens.McWilliam HEG, Mak JYW, Awad W, Zorkau M, Cruz-Gomez S, Lim HL, Yan Y, Wormald S, Dagley LF, Eckle SBG, Corbett AJ, Liu H, Li S, Reddiex SJJ, Mintern JD, Liu L, McCluskey J, Rossjohn J, Fairlie DP*, Villadangos JA*. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2020117, 24974-24985.

Protease-activated receptor-2 ligands reveal orthosteric and allosteric mechanisms of receptor inhibition.Kennedy AJ, Sundström L, Geschwindner S, Poon EKY, Jiang Y, Chen R, Cooke R, Johnstone S, Madin A, Lim J, Liu Q, Lohman RJ, Nordqvist A, Fridén-Saxin M, Yang W, Brown DG, Fairlie DP, Dekker N. Commun Biol 20203(1), 782. 

Systemic delivery of peptides by the oral route: Formulation and medicinal chemistry approaches. Brayden DJ, Hill TA, Fairlie DP, Maher S, Mrsny RJ. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2020157, 2-36.

High cell permeability does not predict oral bioavailability for analogues of cyclic heptapeptide sanguinamide A. Nielsen DS, Lohman RJ, Hoang HN, Fairlie DP, Hill TA. Aust J Chem 202073, 344-451.



Crystal structures of protein-bound cyclic peptides. Malde AK, Hill TA, Iyer A, Fairlie DP. Chem Rev 2019, 119, 9861-9914. 

Alpha-synuclein structure and Parkinson's disease - lessons and emerging principles. Meade RM, Fairlie DP, Mason JM. Mol Neurodegener 2019, 14, 29. 

Oxazole-benzenesulfonamide derivatives inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase interaction with cellular eEF1A and reduce viral replication. Rawle DJ, Li D, Wu Z, Wang L, Choong M, Lor M, Reid RC, Fairlie DP, Harris J, Tachedjian G, Poulsen SA, Harrich D. J Virol 2019, 93(12), pii: e00239-19. 

Twists or turns: stabilizing alpha versus beta turns in tetrapeptides. Hoang HN, Hill TA, Ruiz-Gómez G, Diness F, Mason JM, Wu C, Abbenante G,  Shepherd NE, Fairlie DP. Chem Sci 2019, 10, 10595-10600. 

A long-range n to pi* interaction secures the smallest known alpha-helix in water. Hoang HN, Wu C, Hill TA, de Araujo AD, Berhnhardt PV, Liu L, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Edit 2019, 58, 18873-18877.


Diverse MR1-restricted T cells in mice and humans. Koay HF, Gherardin NA, Xu C, Seneviratna R, Zhao Z, Chen Z, Fairlie DP, McCluskey J, Pellicci DG, Uldrich AP, Godfrey DI. Nature Commun 2019, 10, 2243. 

 Structure-activity relationships of wollamide cyclic hexapeptides with activity against drug-resistant and intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Khalil ZG, Hill TA, De Leon Rodriguez LM, Lohman RJ, Hoang HN, Reiling N, Hillemann D, Brimble MA, Fairlie DP, Blumenthal A, Capon RJ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019, 63(3). pii: e01773-18. 

Inhibitors of class I histone deacetylases attenuate thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice by suppressing hepatic type 2 inflammation. Loh Z, Fitzsimmons RL, Reid RC, Ramnath D, Clouston A, Gupta PK, Irvine KM, Powell EE, Schroder K, Stow JL, Sweet MJ, Fairlie DP, Iyer A. Br J Pharmacol 2019, 176, 3775-3790. 

Characterization of muman mucosalā€associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. Souter MNT, Loh L, Li S, Meehan BS, Gherardin NA, Godfrey DI, Rossjohn J, Fairlie DP, Pellicci DG, Chen Z, Kjer-Nielsen L, Corbett AJ, McCluskey J, Eckle SBG. Curr Protocol Immunol 2019, 127(1), e90.


Bicyclic Helical Peptides as Dual Inhibitors Selective for Bcl2A1 and Mcl-1 Proteins. de Araujo AD, Lim J, Wu KC, Xiang Y, Good AC, Skerlj R, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 201861, 2962-2972.

Contiguous hydrophobic and charged surface patches in short helix-constrained peptides drive cell permeability. Perry SR, Hill TA, de Araujo AD, Hoang HN, Fairlie DP. Org Biomol Chem 2018, 16, 367-371. 

Glucuronic acid as a helix-inducing linker in short peptides. Wu C, Hoang HN, Liu L, Fairlie DP. Chemical Communications 201854, 2162-2165. 

Chemically diverse helix-constrained peptides using selenocysteine crosslinking. Dantas de Araujo A, Perry SR, Fairlie DP. Org Lett 201820, 1453-1456.

A potent antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2 that inhibits multiple signaling functions in human cancer cells. Jiang Y, Yau MK, Lim J, Wu KC, Xu W, Suen JY, Fairlie DP. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018364, 246-257. 

Chemical Approaches to Modulating Complement-Mediated Diseases. Iyer A, Xu W, Reid RC, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 201861, 3253-3276. 

Lysine Deacetylases and Regulated Glycolysis in Macrophages. Shakespear MR, Iyer A, Cheng CY, Das Gupta K, Singhal A, Fairlie DP, Sweet MJ. Trends Immunol 201839, 473-488.

A potent antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2 that inhibits multiple signalling functions in human cancer cells.Jiang Y, Yau MK, Lim J, Wu KC, Xu W, Suen JY, Fairlie DP. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018364, 246-257.

An overview on the identification of MAIT cell antigens. Kjer-Nielsen L, Corbett AJ, Chen Z, Liu L, Mak JYW, Godfrey DI, Rossjohn J, Fairlie DP, McCluskey J, Eckle SBG. Immunol Cell Biol 201896, 573-587.

Complement C3a and C5a receptors promote GVHD by suppressing mitophagy in recipient dendritic cells. Nguyen H, Kuril S, Bastian D, Kim J, Zhang M, Vaena SG, Dany M, Dai M, Heinrichs JL, Daenthanasanmak A, Iamsawat S, Schutt S, Fu J, Wu Y, Fairlie DP, Atkinson C, Ogretmen B, Tomlinson S, Yu XZ. JCI Insight 2018, 3(24), pii: 121697.

Hepatic expression profiling identifies steatosis-independent and steatosis-driven advanced fibrosis genes. Ramnath D, Irvine KM, Lukowski SW, Horsfall LU, Loh Z, Clouston AD, Patel PJ, Fagan KJ, Iyer A, Lampe G, Stow JL, Schroder K, Fairlie DP, Powell JE, Powell EE, Sweet MJ. JCI Insight 2018, 3(14), pii: 120274.


Electrophilic helical peptides that bind covalently, irreversibly and selectively in a protein-protein interaction site. Dantas de Araujo A, Lim J, Good AC, Skerlj RT, Fairlie DP. ACS Med Chem Lett 20178, 22−26.

Downsizing Proto-oncogene cFos to Short Helix-Constrained Peptides That Bind Jun. Baxter D, Perry SR, Hill TA, Kok WM, Zaccai NR, Brady RL, Fairlie DP, Mason JM. ACS Chem Biol 2017, 12, 2051-2061.

The ribosomal protein S19 suppresses antitumor immune responses via the complement C5a receptor 1. Vadrevu SK, Sharma SK, Chintala NK, Cho J-H, Patel J, Patel B, Fairlie DP, Paterson Y, Astrinidis A, Karbowniczek M, Markiewski MM. J Immunol 2017,198, 2989-2999.

Europium-Labeled Synthetic C3a Protein as a Novel Fluorescent Probe for Human Complement C3a Receptor. Dantas de Araujo A, Wu C, Wu KC, Reid RC, Durek T, Lim J, Fairlie DP. Bioconjug Chem 201728, 1669-1676.

Helix-constraints and amino acid substitution in GLP-1 increase cAMP and insulin secretion but not beta arrestin 2 signalling. Plisson F, Hill TA, Mitchell JM, Hoang HN, de Araujo AD, Xu W, Cotterell A, Edmonds DJ, Stanton RV, Derksen DR, Loria PM, Griffith DA, Price DA, Liras S, Fairlie DP. Eur J Med Chem 2017, 127, 703-714.

Drugs and drug-like molecules can modulate the function of mucosal-associated invariant T cells.  Keller AN, Eckle SBG, Xu W, Liu L, Hughes VA, Mak JYW, Meehan B, Pediongco T, Birkinshaw RW, Chen Z, Wang H, D’Souza C, Kjer-Nielsen L, Gheradin NA, Godfrey DI, Kostenko L, Corbett AJ, Purcell AW, Fairlie DP*, McCluskey J*, Rossjohn J*. Nature Immunol 2017, 18, 402-411. 

Stabilising short-lived Schiff base derivatives of 5-aminouracils that activate mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Mak JYW, Xu W, Reid RC, Corbett AJ, Meehan B, Wang H, Chen Z, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J, Liu L*, Fairlie* DP. Nature Commun 20178, 14599. 

Biased signaling by agonists of protease activated receptor 2. Jiang Y, Yau M-K, Kok WM, Lim J, Wu K-C, Liu L, Hill TA, Suen JY, Fairlie DP. ACS Chem Biol 2017, 12, 1217-1226.

Exploiting a novel conformational switch to control innate immunity mediated by complement protein C3a. Lohman R-J, Hamidon JK, Reid RC, Rowley JA, Yau M-K, Halili MA, Nielsen DS, Lim J, Wu K-C, Loh Z, Do A, Suen JY, Iyer A, Fairlie DP. Nature Commun 20178, 351.

Mapping transmembrane residues of proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) that influence ligand-modulated calcium signaling. Suen JY, Adams MN, Lim J, Madala PK, Xu W, Cotterell A, He Y, Yau MK, Hooper JD, Fairlie DP. Pharmacol Res 2017, 117, 328-342. 

Alpha helix nucleation by a simple cyclic tetrapeptide. Hoang HN, Wu C, Beyer RL, Hill TA, Fairlie DP. Aust J Chem 2017, 70, 213–219. 



Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists. Seow V, Lim J, Cotterell AJ, Yau MK, Xu W, Lohman RJ, Kok WM, Stoermer MJ, Sweet MJ, Reid RC, Suen JY, Fairlie DP. Science Reports 2016, 6, 24575.

The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1. McWilliam HE, Eckle SB, Theodossis A, Liu L, Chen Z, Wubben JM, Fairlie DP, Strugnell RA, Mintern JD, McCluskey J, Rossjohn J, Villadangos JA. Nat Immunol. 2016, 17, 531-537.

Simultaneous uncoupled expression and purification of the Dengue virus NS3 protease and NS2B co-factor domain. Shannon AE, Chappell KJ, Stoermer MJ, Chow SY, Kok WM, Fairlie DP, Young PR. Protein Expr Purif 2016119, 124-129. 

Membrane-anchored Serine Protease Matriptase Is a Trigger of Pulmonary Fibrogenesis. Bardou O, Menou A, François C, Duitman JW, von der Thüsen JH, Borie R, Sales KU, Mutze K, Castier Y, Sage E, Liu L, Bugge TH, Fairlie DP, Königshoff M, Crestani B, Borensztajn KS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016, 193, 847-860.

Product release is rate-limiting for catalytic processing by Dengue virus protease. Shannon, AE, Pedroso MM, Chappell KJ, Watterson D, Liebscher S, Kok WM, Fairlie DP, Schenk G, Young PR. Science Reports 2016, 6, 37539. doi: 10.1038/srep37539. 

Downsizing the BAD BH3 peptide to small constrained α-helices with improved ligand efficiency. Shepherd NE, Harrison RS, Ruiz-Gomez G, Abbenante G, Mason JM, Fairlie DP. Org Biomol Chem 2016, 14, 10939-10945.

Truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 α-conotoxin pl14a peptide chimeras maintain potency, α-helicity and reveal interactions vital for cAMP signaling in vitro. Swedberg JE, Schroeder CI, Mitchell J, Fairlie DP, Edmonds DJ, Griffith DA, Ruggeri RB, Derksen DR, Loria PM, Price DA, Liras S, Craik DJ. J Biol Chem 2016291, 15778-15787.

Development of cell-penetrating peptide-based drug leads to inhibit MDMX:p53 and MDM2:p53 interactions. Philippe G, Huang YH, Cheneval O, Lawrence N, Zhang Z, Fairlie DP, Craik DJ, de Araujo AD, Henriques ST. Biopolymers 2016, 106, 853-863.

Stapling peptides using cysteine crosslinking. Fairlie DP, de Araujo AD. Biopolymers 2016106, 843-852. 

Electrophilic helical peptides that bind covalently, irreversibly and selectively in a protein-protein interaction site. Dantas de Araujo A, Lim J, Good AC, Skerlj RT, Fairlie DP. ACS Med Chem Lett 2016, accepted Nov 11.



Recognition of Vitamin B precursors and byproducts by Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells. Eckle SB, Corbett AJ, Keller A, Chen Z, Godfrey DI, Liu L, Mak JY, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J. J Biol Chem 2015, 290, 30204-30211.

Short hydrophobic peptides with cyclic constraints are potent glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists. Hoang HN, Song K, Hill TA, Derksen DR, Edmonds DJ, Kok WM, Limberakis C, Liras S, Loria PM, Mascitti V, Mathiowetz AM, Mitchell JM, Piotrowski DW, Price DA, Stanton RV, Suen JY, Withka JM, Griffith DA, Fairlie DP. J Med Chem 201558, 4080-4085.

Peptide inhibitors of the Escherichia coli DsbA oxidative machinery essential for bacterial virulence. Duprez W, Premkumar L, Halili M, Lindahl F, Reid RC, Fairlie DP*, Martin JL*. J Med Chem 201558, 577-587.

Small molecule inhibitors of disulfide bond formation by the bacterial DsbA-DsbB dual enzyme system. Halili MA, Bachu P, Lindahl F, Bechara C, Mohanty B, Reid RC, Scanlon MJ, Robinson CV, Fairlie DP*, Martin JL*. ACS Chem Biol 201510, 957-964.

Helix-constrained nociceptin peptides are potent agonists and antagonists of ORL-1 and nociception. Lohman RJ, Harrison RS, Ruiz-Gomez G, Hoang HN, Shepherd NE, Chow S, Hill TA, Madala PK, Fairlie DP. Vitamins and Hormones 201597, 1-55. 

Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships. Singh R, Reed AN, Chu P, Scully CC, Yau MK, Suen JY, Durek T, Reid RC, Fairlie DP. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 201525, 5604-5608.

Flexibility versus Rigidity for Orally Bioavailable Cyclic Hexapeptides. Nielsen DS, Lohman RJ, Hoang HN, Hill TA, Jones A, Lucke AJ, Fairlie DP. Chembiochem 201516, 2289-2293. 

Toward peptide-based inhibitors as therapies for Parkinson's disease. Mason JM, Fairlie DP. Future Med Chem 20157, 2103-2105.

Cyclic alpha-conotoxin peptidomimetic chimeras as potent GLP-1R agonists. Swedberg JE, Schroeder CI, Mitchell JM, Durek T, Fairlie DP, Edmonds DJ, Griffith DA, Ruggeri RB, Derksen DR, Loria PM, Liras S, Price DA, Craik DJ. Eur J Med Chem 2015103, 175-184. 

Comparing Sixteen Scoring Functions for Predicting Biological Activities of Ligands for Protein Targets. Xu W, Lucke AJ, Fairlie DP. J Mol Graphics Modelling 201557, 76-88.

Three Homology Models of PAR2 Derived from Different Templates: Applications to Antagonist Discovery. Perry SR, Xu W, Wirija A, Lim J, Yau MK, Stoermer MJ, Lucke AJ, Fairlie DP. J Chem Inf Model 201555, 1181-1191.

Repurposing Registered Drugs as Antagonists for Protease-Activated Receptor 2. Xu W, Lim J, Goh CY, Suen JY, Jiang Y, Yau MK, Wu KC, Liu L, Fairlie DP. J Chem Inf Model 201555, 2079-2084.

Virtual Screening of Peptide and Peptidomimetic Fragments Targeted to Inhibit Bacterial Dithiol Oxidase DsbA. Duprez W, Bachu P, Stoermer MJ, Tay S, McMahon RM, Fairlie DP, Martin JL. PLoS One 201510(7): e0133805.

Recognition of Vitamin B Precursors and Byproducts by Mucosal Associated Invariant T Cells. Eckle SB, Corbett AJ, Keller AN, Chen Z, Godfrey DI, Liu L, Mak JY, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J.J Biol Chem. 2015, 290, 30204-30211.

Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites. Engel JA, Jones AJ, Avery VM, Sumanadasa SD, Ng SS, Fairlie DP, Adams TS, Andrews KT. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 20155, 117-126.

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Promote Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Bacterial Clearance by Human Macrophages. Ariffin JK, das Gupta K, Kapetanovic R, Iyer A, Reid RC, Fairlie DP, Sweet MJ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015, 60, 1521-1529.

Mason JM, Fairlie DP. Toward peptide-based inhibitors as therapies for Parkinson's disease. Future Med Chem. 2015, 7, 2103-2105. 

Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. Kotze AC, Hines BM, Bagnall NH, Anstead CA, Gupta P, Reid RC, Ruffell AP, Fairlie DP. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2015, 5, 201-208.

Cyclic alpha-conotoxin peptidomimetic chimeras as potent GLP-1R agonists. Swedberg JE, Schroeder CI, Mitchell JM, Durek T, Fairlie DP, Edmonds DJ, Griffith DA, Ruggeri RB, Derksen DR, Loria PM, Liras S, Price DA, Craik DJ. Eur J Med Chem. 2015, 103, 175-184.



T cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways. Corbett AJ, Eckle SBG, Birkinshaw RW, Liu L, Patel O, Mahony J, Chen Z, Reantra-goon R, Meehan B, Cao H, Williamson NA, Strugnell RA, Sinderen DV, Mak JYW, Fairlie DP*, Lars Kjer-Nielsen*, Rossjohn J*, McCluskey J*. Nature 2014, 509(7500), 361-365. doi:10.1038/nature13160.

Crystal Structure of the Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Enzyme from Proteus Mirabilis Bound Non-Covalently to an Active Site Peptide Ligand.Kurth F, Duprez W, Premkumar L, Schembri M, Fairlie DP, Martin JL. J Biol Chem 2014, 289, 19810-19822.

Helical cyclic pentapeptides constrain HIV-1 Rev peptide for enhanced RNA binding. Harrison RS, Shepherd NE, Hoang HN, Beyer RL, Ruiz-Gómez G, Kelso MJ, WM Kok, TA Hill, Abbenante G, Fairlie DP. Tetrahedron 2014, 70, 7645-7650 [special issue on cyclic peptides].

Stereoelectronic effects dictate molecular conformation and biological function of heterocyclic amides. Reid RC, Yau MK, Singh R, Lim J, Fairlie DP. J Am Chem Soc 2014, 136, 11914-11917. Faculty1000Prime.

Improving on Nature: Making a Cyclic Heptapeptide Orally Bioavailable. Nielsen DS, Hoang HN, Lohman RJ, Hill TA, Lucke AJ, Craik DJ, Edmonds DJ, Griffith DA, Rotter CJ, Ruggeri RB, Price DA, Liras S, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Edit 2014, 53, 12059-12063. 

Constraining Cyclic Peptides To Mimic Protein Structure Motifs. Hill TA, Shepherd NE, Diness F, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Edit 2014, 53, 13020-13041.

Comparative Alpha Helicity of Cyclic Pentapeptides in Water. de Araujo AD, Hoang HN, Kok WM, Diness F, Gupta G, Hill TA, Driver RW, Price DA, Liras S, Fairlie DP. Angew Chem Int Edit 201453, 6965-6999.

Rational design and synthesis of an orally bioavailable peptide guided by NMR amide temperature coefficients. Wang CK, Northfield SE, Colless B, Chaousis S, Hamernig I, Lohman RJ, Nielsen DS, Schroeder CI, Liras S, Price DA, Fairlie DP, Craik DJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014, 111, 17504-17509.

Cyclic Penta- and Hexa- Leucine Peptides Without N-Methylation Are Orally Absorbed. Hill TA, Lohman RJ, Hoang HN, Nielsen DS, Scully CCG, Kok WM, Liu L, Lucke AJ, Stoermer MJ, Schroeder CI, Chaousis S, Colless B, Bernhardt PV, Edmonds DJ, Griffith DA, Rotter CJ, Ruggeri RB, Price DA, Liras S, Craik DJ, Fairlie DP. ACS Med Chem Lett 2014, 5, 1148-1151. Faculty1000Prime.



Recognition of vitamin B metabolites by mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Patel O, Kjer-Nielsen L, Nours JL, Eckle SBG, Bikinshaw R, Beddoe T, Corbett AJ, Liu L, Miles JJ, Mehan B, Reantragoon R, Sandoval-Romero ML, Sullivan LC, Brooks AG, Chen Z, Fairlie DP, McCluskey J, Rossjohn J. Nature Commun. 2013, 4, 2142. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3142.

Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases. Premkumar L, Heras B, Duprez W, Walden P, Halili M, Kurth F, Fairlie DP, Martin JL. Acta Cryst Sect D 2013, D69, 1981–1994.

Identification and characterization of bi-thiazole-2,2'-diamines as kinase inhibitory scaffolds. Ngoei KR, Ng DC, Gooley PR, Fairlie DP, Stoermer MJ, Bogoyevitch MA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013, 1834,1077-1088.

Antigen-loaded MR1 tetramers define T cell receptor heterogeneity in mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Reantragoon R, Corbett AJ, Sakala IG, Gherardin NA, Furness JB, Chen Z, Eckle SB, Uldrich AP, Birkinshaw RW, Patel O, Kostenko L, Meehan B, Kedzierska K, Liu L, Fairlie DP, Hansen TH, Godfrey DI, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J, Kjer-Nielsen L. J Exp Med 2013, 210, 2305-2320. 

Truncated and helix-constrained peptides with high affinity and specificity for the cFos coiled-coil of AP-1. Rao T, Ruiz-Gómez G, Hill TA, Hoang HN, Fairlie DP, Mason JM.  PLoS One 20138(3), e59415. 

Efficient chemical synthesis of human complement protein C3a. Ghassemian A, Wang CI, Yau MK, Reid RC, Lewis RJ, Fairlie DP, Alerwood PF, Durek T. Chem Commun 201349, 2356-2358.

The α-Proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis Protein Disulfide Machinery Has a Regulatory Mechanism Absent in γ-Proteobacteria. Walden PM, Halili MA, Archbold JK, Lindahl F, Fairlie DP, Inaba K, Martin JL. PLoS One 20138(11), e81440. 

Comparative Sequence, Structure and Redox Analyses of Klebsiella pneumoniae DsbA Show That Anti-Virulence Target DsbA Enzymes Fall into Distinct Classes. Kurth F, Rimmer K, Premkumar L, Mohanty B, Duprez W, Halili MA, Shouldice SR, Heras B, Fairlie DP, Scanlon MJ, Martin JL. PLoS One 2013, 8(11), e80210. 


MR1 presents microbial vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. Kjer-Nielsen L, Patel O, Nours JL, Meehan B, Corbett AJ, Liu L, Bhati M, Chen Z, Kostenko L, Reantragoon R, Williamson NA, Purcell AW, Dudek NL, McConville MJ, O’Hair RAJ, Khairallah GN, Godfrey DI, Fairlie DP, Rossjohn J, McCluskey J. Nature 2012, 491, 717-723.

Amyloid Formation from an α-Helix Peptide Bundle Is Seeded by 310-Helix Aggregates. Singh Y, Sharpe PC, Hoang HN, Lucke AJ, McDowall AW, Bottomley SP, Fairlie DP. Chemistry Eur. J. 2011, 17, 151-160. 

Downsizing human, bacterial, and viral proteins to short water-stable alpha helices that maintain biological potency. Harrison RS, Shepherd NE, Hoang HN, Ruiz-Gómez G, Hill TA, Driver RW, Desai VS, Young PR, Abbenante G, Fairlie DP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010, 107, 11686-11691. 

Structure activity relationships for substrate based inhibitors of human complement factor B. Ruiz-Gómez, G.; Lim, J.; Halili, MA; Le, GT; Madala, PK; Abbenante G.; Fairlie DP J Med Chem 200952, 6042-6052. 

Complement Factor C2, Inhibiting A Latent Serine Protease In The Classical Pathway Of Complement Activation. Halili MA, Ruiz-Gómez G, Le GT, Abbenante G, Fairlie DP. Biochemistry 200948, 8466–8472. 

Crystal Structures of Highly Constrained Substrate and Hydrolysis Products Bound to HIV-1 Protease. Implications for Catalytic Mechanism. Tyndall, J. D. A.; Pattenden, L. K.; Reid, R. C.; Hu, S.-H.; Alewood, D.; Alewood, P. F.; Walsh, T.; Fairlie, D. P.; Martin, J. L. Biochemistry 2008, 47, 3736-44.

Profiling the enzymatic properties and inhibition of human complement factor B. Le, G.T.; Abbenante, G.; Fairlie, D.P. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 34809-34816. 

Insights to Substrate Binding and Processing by West Nile Virus NS3 Protease :through Combined Modelling, Protease Mutagenesis, and Kinetic Studies. Chappell, K. J.; Stoermer, M. J.; Fairlie, D. P.; Young, P.R. J. Biol. Chem2006281, 38448-58. 

Proteases Universally Recognize Beta Strands In Their Active Sites. Tyndall, J. D. A.; Nall, T.; Fairlie, D. P. Chem. Reviews 2005, 105, 973-1000. [>100 citations]                          

Site-directed Mutagenesis and Kinetic Studies of the West Nile Virus NS3 Protease Identify Key Enzyme-Substrate Interactions. Chappell,  K. J.; Nall, T.; Stoermer, M.J.; Fang, N.-X.; Tyndall, J.D.A.; Fairlie, D.P.; Young, P.Y. J. Biol. Chem. 2005, 280, 2896-2903.

A Cyclic Metallopeptide That Induces Alpha Helicity In Short Peptide Fragments of Thermolysin. Kelso, M. J.; Hoang, H. N.; Oliver, W. N.; Sokolenko, N.; March, D. R.; Appleton, T. G.; Fairlie, D. P.  Angew Chem. Int. Edit. 2003, 42, 421-424.       

Activity Of Recombinant Dengue 2 Virus NS3 Protease In The Presence Of NS2B Cofactor, Small Peptide Substrates, And Inhibitors. Leung, D.; Schroder, K.; White, H.; Fang, N.-X.; Stoermer, M. J.; Abbenante, G.; Martin, J. L.; Young, P.; Fairlie, D. P. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276, 45762-45771. [>100 citations]   

Cu(II) potentiation of Alzheimer Aß neurotoxicity: correlation with cell-free hydrogen peroxide production and metal reduction. Huang, X.; Cuajungco, M. P.; Atwood, C. S.; Hartshorn, M. A.; Tyndall, J. D. A.; Hanson, G. R.; Stokes, K. C.; Leopold, M.; Multhaup, G.; Goldstein, L. E.; Scarpa, R. C.; Saunders, A. J.; Lim, J.; Moir, R. D.; Glabe, C.; Bowden, E. F.; Masters, C. L.; Fairlie, D. P.; Tanzi, R. E.; Bush, A. I. J. Biol. Chem.&nbs